Misc

Shalamzar

In the southern part of Charmahal, in Shalamzar, there are some partially subtle but high-quality rugs that have attractive designs. There is a mass production; despite of the lack of importance, this villages have 2500 rug loom. Desirable colors and designs and appropriate cost are some factors causing the Isphahani traders demand highly this rug, to export them to west. Shalamzar rugs are made of symmetrical knots and low density and weaved on a cotton yarn warp and two thick and firm wefts. The used pattern in this rugs are totally different from traditional ones, actually they have a prayer-niche design full of trees, vases and birds patter, and medallion ones as well. Another feature of the Shalamzar rug is that there is a sequence of yellow flower with stalk and leaves in the margin sides.

Misc

Shiraz

Around Shiraz city, there was a strong dynasty called Achaemenid Empire whose gorgeous and precious monuments are still considerable in Perspolice ruins.

Throughout the history, shiraz was famous for it’s beautiful gardens. The city is well-known as “the city of rose” as well. In 13th and 14th a. d. two famous poets lived in this city namely “Hafez” and “Saadi” who were originally from Shiraz and buried there as well. The “Vakil” bazaar which is the biggest bazaar in iran, is considered and the heart of Shiraz. In this bazaar, the weaved crafts belonging to “Fars” people exist among some other items.

There are a lot of weavers in Shiraz and rural areas around the city, who are mostly nomads and weave often rugs. Also the horizontal looms are frequently used in villages.

The bright soft wool, originated from domestic animals in Fars province, is often used for warp and rug tissues. The design and the pattern used in Shiraz rug tissues, represent the traditions and tribal habits, meaning that each rug has different pattern according to the tribe in which the rug is weaved. For more explanation, we should imply the Qashqai, Khamse and Lor rugs. Around Shiraz, some Lor tribes live, such as “Mamasani”, “Kujilu” and “Holoku”. The rugs weaved in these tribes, have simple designs and have no predetermined patterns, and often are weaved with inspiration. Often, diamond-like medallions in rows are observed, as some section possess hook-like designs and this is the feature of Qashqai rugs. In urban workshops, there are illustrated rugs associating ancient Perspolice ruins. These illustrated rugs are so much subtle and often fabricated for national markets.

There are so much rugs having traditional medallion design with many curves and exact schemes. The precise section and composition of the color and also the effect of the colors displays the relationship among current traditional art in nomad tribes. The color composition includes often bright red, pure white and some dark ones for the background, nowadays major amount of colors are fabricated of plant sources and this was realized by recognition and recovery of the dyeing methods in past.

Often, the so much subtle and detailed Shiraz rugs are called “Mecca” rugs. This name associates the people departing for “Haj”, who asked weavers to fabricate them valuable rugs to dedicate such rugs to Mecca holy mosque. Instead, nowadays the “Shiraz Mecca” rug is a unique brand. Among important producers in Shiraz region and arounds, we can name “ARsanjan”, “Marvdasht” , “Kamin”, “Karbal” and “Sarvestan”.

Qashqai tribes

In Qashqai culture, the nomad lifestyle is totally conventional and the tribal identity plays and important role, causing Qashqai people live still based on the nomad lifestyle and wear traditional clothing.

Raising sheep is the main financial source of these tribes; they possess some species of sheep which are resistant against difficult weather condition and well adapted to the environment.

Qashqai tents are made of black wool and has several functions: in the winter they put it on a some tall stands which are drained by small rocks and firm on some walls. Likewise in summer, they open one side of the tent decorated by small colorful tags and tufts. The furniture is located right in the end of the tent, resembling a column surrounded by colorful rugs. In summer, you can see a loom located horizontally in the tent which is frequently current among nomads. Qashqai people have a long history of weaving; and women’s competence of weaving was recorded in many resources in 10th century. Qashqai women weaves a lot, which can be accounted for a home task and also a financial source, while they did another task in winter. Best types of wool was used in weaving the rugs, the wool was collected in spring and they used to add sometimes camel or goat hairs to the wools. In the priceless samples, the red-dyed silk is used as the weft and cotton yarn was used rarely to harden the end-edges of the rugs.

Generally wool warp is natural and in itself color and weft is used dual and in colored wool in red and sometimes blue. The most common knot is asymmetric that is created open by the left side on a warp that is extremely compressed and symmetric knot is used for complete texture rarely and sometimes is seen on edge of the rug. For tightening the border to become circular, a thick yarn in amount of 8-10 usual warps is used that is decorated by a bicolor string adorned with colorful ribbons. They used herbal colors since middle of nineteenth century. The desirable color of Qashqaei was used more, was the red obtained of Ronas that mostly was mixed up with pomegranate hull to achieve darker color. The other weavers favorite color was yellow that was obtained of pomegranate hull and esparak ( Kavoshk in Qashqaei) and also vernacular herbs.

Qashqaei rugs mostly were woven in small sizes and the very precious models were Kalgi.

Mostly traditional Iranian patterns like Herati or bush is used for decoration that is used as geometric or simple.

Overall the main characteristic of Qashqaei rugs and “Qashqaei symbol” is a design that is achieved by combination of old patterns related to tribes with simplified designs of water pool and birds and ShahAbbasi flowers (Nakhli) used in urban rugs and most probably is transferred to immigrant nomads from workshops in Shiraz that were at the peak of flourishing on Zandiye era between years 1759 to 1794. As a result a bergamot in diamond shape with four curved sides has been woven in the center or repeat alternately and vertically and thousands of irregular geometric designs are woven on the background: like red flowers, pyramid, little memling flowers and simplified pictures.

Another design that is specific for Qahqaei rug, is lion pattern that has a special concept in clan and is symbol of Iran monarchy that nomads were always loyal supporter of that for last centuries.

In the end, it should be noted that Qashqaeis weave especial kind of rugs that in sanctuary part of them lots of tiny patterns in seen: little animals, colorful roses, serrated leafs, pyramid and diamonds with different sizes. The arch shape of the top of the this rug, existence of trees at the sides and used color chosen remember into the mind Indian Mogl rugs known as Mille-Fleurs or thousand flowers. In Qahqaei textures, other traditional patterns also is seen like Moharramat with vertical thin line, the tree of life named plane tree or French roses known as red flower.

Qashqaeis are also considered as producer of different kinds of saddlebags and kilims with shiny colors and sizes.

In the south of Iran nomads book, Qashqai tappet tribali persiani, by this writer, it has been explained about it in details.

Misc

Tehran

AqaMohammadKhan Qajar, the founder of Qajar era that has come to power after bloody events of Kerman in 1756, decided to choose a new capital for his dynasty and he chose Tehran that was a village around an important and saint city of Rey that today it is considered as the official, political and commercial main center of the country too. Tehran is a wide city located in 1132 meter of the south domain of Alborz mountains and has millions of people came from other parts of Iran to Tehran and most of them were active in rug weaving. Finding an especial artistic method in woven rugs in first decades of nineteenth century is hard. Actually, each weaver had used the method and common design among their nation in rug texture so through the Tehran rugs, designs of Kerman, Isfahan, Kashan and Tabriz rugs is also seen that each one is woven according to common properties in that area. In next years, in Tehran rugs, one dedicated method were used that seems it’s a combination of common methods in aforementioned main centers and totally were template of classical Iranian decorating custom. Bu using this method and through the huge productions happened, in year 1936, rug company was established that the main branch were located in Tehran and managed the rug production of allover of Iran and had under control and this company, distributed plans for texture between weavers. Tehran rugs were woven in different sizes. Generally these rugs, have flowering design and flexuous designs and are complicated and mostly have bergamot and corner or prayer rugs were woven that had realistic designs of trees that is drawn inside a sanctuary. Also, among the urban products illustrated rugs are seen lately. The color spectrum used in Tehran rugs is so rich; sectional using of designs with delicate and dark color margins cause the curvy looking of the design.

The design was common for border, is using of ShahAbbasi flowers in Herati way that is fame as “Tehran Samavari” ; also there are samples that inscription is woven on the border and poems are seen in inscription. The common designs in small borders, was Madakhel that was mostly used for outer border. Tehran rugs are woven with both kinds of symmetric knot and asymmetric knot and on cotton yarn warps. All of the Tehran rugs are two wefts kind that weft is cotton. The silk weft is stretched and in white color while the limp weft is mostly in cobalt-blue. Used wool is thin with pile and high quality and mostly is fluffy wool. Among the smaller producing centers located around Tehran, Rey can be named that was fame in the past because of silk woven. Rug company in Shemiran and Karaj launched workshops that were doing spinning the fibers and coloring wool. In Tehran market, woven rugs by different nomads clans can be found that are residing at the east of Tehran and in domain of Alborz. These nomads are from different ancestry and they were settled by force of Qajar and Pahlavi kings: These nomads, are Lor, Kurd and Arab and although they are living together, they have saved their original properties and live based on their customs and even talk in their original dialect. Most of them are settled in little village areas, but they go to mountain pastures by the season migration and in spring and autumn, seeing this scene of the nomads and their flock passing today modern ways to achieve to pastures of Alborz mountain is not a weird. In Damavand and Jaban that have the best grounds of this area, groups of Kurds are living that are originally from Qouchan. Koutis that are belong to “ Khamse Arab” and some of the Lor people are living near to Varamin and other Lor people are staying in Jajroud too.

Misc

Ottoman rugs

After the ottoman dynasty established their government between 15th and 16th century, new innovations were performed fast in scheme domain: decorative designs with animal pictures were eradicated and geometric designs were replaced instead, which are called often for European artists dealing with these designs in their paintings. The continuation of used designs in late Seljuk directs us widely to 2 groups: a group called Hollbein and another called Lotto. The so called Hans Hollebein rugs are designed by consecutive schemes on the background, which has various shapes and often is accounted for advanced and evolved Memlings.

This design existed early before 15th century and a rug which is now kept in Mevlana museum in Konia, and which was obtain of Eshrefoglu mosque in Beyshehir, affirms it. Hollbein classic designs (so called type 1) is well illustrated in a painting of an unknown artist in 1604. The title of this painting is ” conference in Somerset’s house” (national portrait gallery, London), in which a couple of groups from Spain and England are faced together on a beautiful rug. The horizontal medallion rows which have octagon stars, are set periodically in horizontal rows of angular palmette designs. The margins are long and complicated and inspired yet from Kufi handwritings, even though they are simpler than any rugs found in Beyshehir of Konia.

It seems that the Hollbein rug production was increased frequently after ottoman governing, and these rugs were so much common in western countries and considered to be priceless one. Painters used to paint Hollbein rugs under the feet or under the throne of the kings. In a limit range of two centuries, it undergoes a gradual progress: the margin designs and decoration changes, and fancy tissues inspired of Kufi schemes turn into simple and periodic geometric decoration.

Still we observe an shift in choosing the colors that creeps to red, while before this, one used to use green, blue and azure spectrum. According to the used designs, the medallions get bigger and in tandem schemes in background decrease.

Another simple design which is known as Holbein (type 3) include rugs that made of a big dimension octagon/ foursquare medallion vertical row such as ones in Ming and Marby rugs decorated by animal pictures.

Such a rug is well observed in many painting and the most famous one maybe is ” Gli ambasciatori jean de dinteville e Goerges de selve”, which is painted in 1533 and kept in London museum. In he painting of two character, the ambassadors lay on a table which is covered of a rug. You can regard this painting from 3 points: on superior part, on the table, there are astronomy tools to watch the sky. Under the table you can see some musical instrument. From the left view, you can see a skeleton on the floor, whose superior part of the body is separated by a diaphragm from inferior part of the which is the symbol of the life and the third one include feet which are the symbol of the life after death.

Often in the apexes of the octagon, there are small medallion which is observed based on a great deal of 19th century production in Bergama area (Holbein type 4). The rug which is known as the type 2 of Holbein called Lotto is more famous, that is called for Lorenzo Lotto, the venetian artist who lived about 1480-1556 and used to reuse similar rugs in his paintings.

The complex decorative design called Ushak was common in 16th century and used to be current till 17th century and continued to be used with some slight changes until early 18th century. The evolution and progress of this design is not only because of the present painting but because of the many samples that are preserved in museums and collections or exist in fancy European houses.

In Lotto rugs, the routine medallion and palmette of Holbein sort lose their complication and discipline and turn into a golden web which is distinct on a red background. In the older samples, the long margins existed accompanying Kufi designs and complex tissues in which the background composition is so much harmonic. The samples belonging to 17th century, have more harmonic compositions and small dimensions. The whole design has a decorative form which is weaved symmetrically on the background, while you can see the use of other design in the margins instead of conventional Kufi designs, which are often observed as Omega- like ( Ʊ ) shapes attached to medallions or some geometric epigraph.

Along with these prevailing products throughout the Anatolia’s western part, during the 16th century, in Usak workshops, new samples were woven which their designs were based on a medallion and were extremely influenced by Iran because during that time, medallion has been used in Iran.

To weave Usak rugs, which soon came to the west through the Venetian merchant ships, a pre-designed plan was needed: The 16th and 17th centuries are a brilliant period in the Turkish carpet weaving, in which a lot of innovations were made and rugs were woven with curve designs and in large numbers. The various decorative patterns in famous samples allow us to indicate the characteristics of Usak rugs at that time. Among these models the most common design is perhaps the medallion: These rugs which were usually long, had a ground full of oval shaped medallion that were placed on a longitudinal axis. Alongside them and alternately, there were small circular medallions with two pendants in form of tip of an arrow and were usually woven in half, near the borders. The background is usually red and decorated with delicate blossom shades of blue. The medallions are in dark blue and their edges are dentate and have a dense texture. The designs goes on continuously until they get cut off randomly by the borders and it’s basically different from the other Iranian rugs which were woven in the same era because in those Iranian rugs the design was symmetrical and on an axis.

Usak rugs woven in the late 18th century had significant dimensions, the length of which reached 10 meters and had medallions, later samples were simpler and their dimensions were smaller and occasionally had only one medallion. In the west, they value Usak rugs with medallion a lot and they were exported to the Netherlands in large numbers. The flamingo painters painted these rugs in aristocratic or bourgeois houses which were used as a table cloth. But much more famous picture may be the drawing which have been drawn from Henri the Eight. The second group of Usak rugs, known as Starred Usak rugs , were woven in the 17th century. The lengths were long, and the ground was decorated with a few octagonal stars in vertical consecutive rows and there were cross—shaped designs in distances as well. The ground was red and the stars were blue and they shone with some decoration. In some English collections, there are examples of Starred Usak of the year 1580, on which the badges of the English aristocratic families are woven.

Many Usak rugs offer special prayer designs and geometrical designs on the ground. Although there were example of woven pray rugs from the Seljuk period in Anatolia, Usak rugs became so popular in 16th century. Common examples of Usak rugs in the 19th century are angular and with twisted branches on the sides , and in some of them large masses of clouds is seen on the ground. The color spectrum used in these rugs is affected by the glow of the red color, which is in contrast to the blue color, for medallion and borders golden yellow has been used.

Finally, between the 16th and 17th century Usak rugs, there were numerous rugs featuring geometric designs that occupy the whole surface of the ground which were bright and made of wool, and they were sometimes called Selendi. The most famous of them is known as Bird, because among the used design on the ground, one can see the very simplistic image of the birds.

Misc

Yazd

In the way of Kerman to Isfahan, an ancient city of Yazd is located that is the last saint city of the followers of Zoroastrian religion in Iran that today is also the host of a little community of Zoroastrian priest, “Mobedan” and an old and beautiful fire place is in there. Yazd was also famous like Kerman for production of cloth and scarf. Marco Polo described Yazd in his travels descriptions like this: “Yazd is a very beautiful and large Iranian city and important goods is trade in there. In this city, handmade weavings are woven by using gold and silk that they call them “Yazdi” and sent to lots of cities”.

By the first years of twenty and thirty, merchants of Kerman started production of Yazdi rugs to present in Europe and America market. The older sample, were decorated to Herati designs and maybe it shows the last phase of evolution in production.

On the Yazdi rugs, bergamot pattern and corner and also a monotone background and free borders and sometimes imitative designs of Kashan rugs is seen. The warp is like the Kerman rugs and the warp is in cotton yarn and weft is triplex and the knot is asymmetric. The texture is not that delicate and the height of piles creates apparent difference with the old Yazd rugs. In last decades using the designs of Tabriz and Kashan was prevalent in Yazd state especially in Ardekan city that of course in imitation of Tabriz designs an obvious difference is with the main sample of Tabriz.

Misc

Afshar

Since Kerman province is far from boundary areas, it hosts some tribes, who emigrate, or even some tribes, that were obligated to accommodate. Around Kerman city and some western areas toward Persian gulf, many tribes live, who originate from various parts, and all live with rustic people. There, you can find a place called “Shul” whose people are from Lorestan, who immigrated to Fars and then to east, and then were dominated by Qashqai and Khamsa tribes, in 13th century. Thereby, Soleimani people immigrated to Kerman. Soleimani is a populated farmer tribe who once belonged to “Bulverdi” in Fars. Around their accommodation, one can find Kutlu and Karai tents, which are Turkmen tribes and immigrated to Kerman following Seljuki army.

Nowadays, there even some Beluch tribes around Kerman, though majority were forced to leave this part in 10th century. Near “Bam”, you can find “Sarbandi” tents, as well as Beruhi tents in north east of Kahnuj, as well as Asnushirvani tents near “Jask” and also Taherzehi tents near Hormozgan. Nut the most important and most populated tribe in Kerman, has been “Afshar” .

Afshari people are originally from Azerbaijan and once they were involved in powerful Qazel Bash group. Safavid kings forced tribes to accommodate in the undesirable climate of Kerman to hinder any invasion from autonomic and independent groups. Afshari tribes in kerman are divided into 3 groups: Jahanshahi , Amui, Buchaqchi. The jahanshahi and Amui tribes came there in 17th century , while Buchaqchi grou immigrated to Zanjan after King Nader request ( 1736-1747). King Nader was originally from Afshar. Knowing their traits, King Nader used to feel a danger from them, therefore he forced them to organize several immigrations, first he sent them out to Fars near Qashqai tribes which was still near Kerman.

Some Buchaqchi Afshar people stayed in Fars and joined a small Qashqai tribe called Kashkuli. Currently, Afshari people are in Saidabad district.

In afshari villages, there are a number of small workshops for weaving rugs. In these workshops, the rugs are sometimes weaved by the tribal method, as it is made totally of wool and has just one weft, however, sometimes they use urban methods in which the warp is of cotton yarn and the weft is folded 2 or 3 times. The knot type can be symmetrical or unsymmetrical, depending on the current method of each tribe, also the knot density is low. The wool is of high-quality, made by the Afshari people. Afshari women weave on horizontal loom, and use a special sickle comb. They use traditional methods to dye wools, using less artificial dyes.

They use madder, walnut, indigo and henna dyes. In order to make a yellow color, in addition to pomegranate, they use reseda, grape and straw. The rugs often have a dark blue or brown background, so by using bright colors, the patterns and designs would be bold and more visible. Usually, these rugs are weaved in small size, while most weavers tend to make wide and rectangle rugs. The patterns show the close relationships between Afshar and other tribes even urban ones. Also, there are some unique simple patterns which are weaved repetitively in rows:

Diamond-shaped medallions that are attached to a subtle small web of designs like crab ones, flower and paisley, which seems to be inspired and imitated of urban patterns used in scarfs and rugs.

The most common type involves two paisley, called “Mother-daughter” and weaved curvely in small size, and the background is covered by large diamonds. In addition to paisley, the hen-design is current. The margins play an important role to make a nice appearance by using bright wool. The patterns are fantasy and has no specific order, often using apple flower with leaves and stalk, every other ones.

In the two ends of Afshari rugs, you can see same ribbons as in Kilim, sometimes one of them is weaved in a colorful way with subtle designs. The Afshari productions are known as Sirjan and ShahreBabak which are the major centers.

Shahrebabak rugs always involve two medallion in a hexagone on a red ground decorated by small paisleys. In the north of ShahreBabak, there is a village called Dehaj, which is the center of paisley-designed rugs.

In “Neyriz” which is a city between Kerman and Shiraz, there is a unique method, by which the rugs are weaved with Qashqai patterns and in which you can see medallion (hook-like) with mihrab design of mille-fleurs type.

Also, the bright colors used in Neyriz rugs caused that these rugs resemble more to Fars production than Afshari ones.

Misc

Beluch

Beluch rugs, are so much simple and dark-color. These rugs are distributed in TorbateHeydarie, Mashhad, Kashmar, Neyshabur, and Sarakhs bazaar.

Another important commercial center is TorbateJam, which is a center to distribute many weaved productions of urban areas; this city is located between Mashhad and Harat. In their rugs, some specific tribal designs are used, in which you simply see the Turkmen and Afshari patterns, as well as some simple Iranian classic designs, such as Harati and Minakhani ones.

In this area, in addition to rugs, there are some hand-weaved items, made on looms such as bags, saddle, salt-container, pillow, or any long bags which are used sometimes as travel sack or even used as pillow. These weaved stuffs are sometimes soft and without piles, and sometimes these have piles. In addition, among Beluch productions, there are some subtle naps and “Shamad” of rectangle Kilim, which are sometimes weaved according to rug-weaving. These items are called “SiahKar” (darkjob) because they have dark colors: before some decades ago, only natural dyes were used, among which the red color made of madder and henna, is mostly utilized. Beluchi people used to utilize fixer and a salt of iron and potassium to make dark dyes which is extracted with alum, in case it is used excessively, it eliminates the brightness of the wool. Beluchi weavers sometimes use camel wool and its natural color instead of sheep one. The scarcity and the value of this wool lead to strict preservation, which is used to make the item for the bride who intended to take them to groom’s tent. Beluchi people also used to weave on horizontal looms, just like other tribes, as such looms are so much easier to carry.

Often, these warps are from dark sheep wool, and sometimes it is combined with goat wool to increase the thickness. The cotton yarn is rarely used, only in some recent samples you can see in sedentary areas, in which the weft is made of cotton yarn and the warps are so much rarely made of cotton yars and in the newest productions, two wefts pass through the warps, which are always loose. The samples which had 3 or 4 wefts, was so much scarce. The knot is not symmetrical and is open in the left side. Of course it involves some exceptions, specially among Beluch tribes who are connected with 4 Aymak groups. The knot density is low. The wool used for pile, is bright and similar to silk wool.

The Beluch rugs have two ends of ribbons which are decorated by subtle designs, having weaved or gathered roots. The backbone is made of goat hair and is dark. The small dimension rugs are more weaved and the long rugs are rarely made. Among the used patterns, you can see often traditional simple Iranian ones like Minakhani or Harati which is made by Seyed Mohammad Khani tribal women and they named this patterns, as “Keshmiri”.

The paisley pattern is widely seen in beluchi rugs in the TorbateHeydarie parts, and tribes call this design as almond. In Khorasan’s Beluchi rugs, some flowers are weaved imitated according to Turkmen ones. Also, “Salor” flower, with saw-toothed, is weaved among tribes in Djulghe valley and the northwest areas of TorbateHeydarie. While near Zabol and Nehbandan, the “Tekke” flower is weaved curvely, called frog pattern and some other ones were prevalent such as “Tauk nuska Gul” and “Ersari”.

On some Beluchi rugs belonging to Qain, some patters are observed inspired of Afshari, among which you can see hen-pattern especially on bags and pillows. But the very common desing is on Beluchi rugs belong to prayer rugs. You can see a Mihrab design on the background, which is bright and you can see some designs of hand palm in the corners which are a priceless symbolic pattern as the five fingers represent the five principals of Islam; and the mihrab is often decorated by a tree with a central stalk and branches of leaves. Beluchi weavers are known as realistic ones as they use natural elements such as leaves and branches which are used so simply.

Among the designs utilized by Beluchs, we can point out the netted ones, with lines and column of medallions with geometric shapes. Also, another pattern called “Memling gul” which is a polygonal shape and Beluch calls this as moon pattern.

In the cornet parts of the rug, you can see often some designs of simple leaves or inspired of the patterns on the margins of Turkmen rugs.

Misc

Birjand and Mud

Birjand is a new weaving center in Khorasan which was known as an active in 50s . There are big and organized workshops in birjand, as well in around villages and the ancient village called “Mud” which is a center of weaving rugs; some rugs that are priceless and well-known since 19th century. Birjand rugs are weaved of unsymmetrical knots and often the dual knots on thick cotton yarn warps are used on two wefts. The wool is a bright type that is commonly used in Khorasan. In the first decades of this the production of such rugs, is circular central medallion. Nowadays, in birjand and in Mud, the rugs are weaved with small fish-like Harati patterns that have carious colors and bright background and ends in long green or azure margins.

Misc

Dorokhsh

Dorokhsh is a village located on a hill in north east of Birjand. Following terrible earthquake happened in 1965 in this area, people left this village.

In last decades of nineteenth century in Dorokhsh lots of rugs were woven and these rugs mostly were woven to release in Europe market. Dorokhsh rugs are delicate and massive and considered as the best and most beautiful rugs in Khorasan. The basic decoration element in these rugs is paisley that are woven in regular rows in dense background and each rows of paisleys are woven in opposite direction. Mostly paisleys are green and woven on crimson background and also samples with blue or black background can be found.

Sometimes combination of paisley around little bergamots or central rectangular shape are woven.

Misc

Hamedan

State of Hamedan is one of the important places in rug weaving that because of the abundance and high quality in local wools, unique rugs are weaving in this city. A kind of ship with especial race bred in this city that has bright and thin fibers and strings with especial thickness obtained of them.

Formerly in all around of this state, weaving activity was common greatly, even in houses or workshops or little houses that were managed by commerce companies. By years of twenty in the main center, huge workshops got busy that production in them was with the goal of export and according to market tastes, changes were seen in them constantly. Like the other places, extent of market and being in the way of commerce networks were the reason of significant changes in production of this area in last century that these changes is obvious in designs and weaving methods.

The newest statistics presented, show the importance of weaving activity and weaving rugs with especial methods on the economy of the area. In this area, more than 1600 villages and more than 70 percent of people get busy by rug weaving. Also skilled masters should be added to this group that gets busy in production part and fibers coloring. Besides these information show the importance and prevalence of weaving activity at this city, also confirm production model existence including traditional or modern classic. Maybe it can be said that nowadays on of the most variable methods of rug weaving is happening in Hamedan state.

Hamedan is the capital city of Hmedan state that is located in 340 kilometers of the south east of Tehran and in 1800 meters above sea level. Alvand Mountain, with the height of 3571 meters caused moderate air in summer. Hamedan is one of the oldest cities in all around of Iran, because this city was known from second millennium before Assyrian birth and was the capital of Mads. According to Herodotus dictum, there was an impervious castle in Hamedan with doors made of gold and silver that was in seven floors. Each floor had different color: white, black, violet purple, cobalt blue, orange, silver and golden. This city was considered as an important center and was known as Hegmataneh in seloukia era and had not lost its notability in period of Arabs domination. Turkish people changed this city name to Amedaneh, but not in Safaviyeh era. Today, a few amounts of people in Hamedan get busy in rug weaving workshops.

The oldest signs remain from local production returns to sixteenth century: according to things quoted in historian records, Hamedan weavers and also weavers of the villages of Dargazin or Darjazin, had woven silk rugs in large sizes that Shah Tahmasb Safavi sent them as gift to ottoman sultan “Suleiman” to carpet a mosque that Sinan, the fame architect, was busy with its build in Istanbul and today is fame in the name of Suleiman executive or Suleiman mosque. There is no relic of these professional and advanced workshops in rug weaving from Safaviyeh era. In this area there are no delicate and especial urban rugs and has difference with what are remained from active centers in Safaviyeh era like Tabriz or Kashan. In county workshops the rugs were woven that were compatible with commercial desires more than local tradition and of course have medium quality.

It seems rugs woven in villages around Hamedan, have more importance in terms of texture properties and also because of originality of design.

The texture of old and beautiful rugs of Hamedan is also attributed to these villages that their all around edges were woven by using camel wool and it is one of the most important properties of this area. There is no much information from the production of nineteenth century of this area that must been too much.

In Hamedan, according to the claim of Edwards in 1912, there was not even a loom and Edwards himself has taken an action to set up 8 looms in little workshops in this city.

The recession that impressed the country among two wars became worse by famine and severe Spanish fever outbreak and imposed huge effects on people of Hamedan. Weaving production decreased significantly, wool price increased high. Starting weaving activity again and compensation past conditions happened in Pahlavi era. In year 1947 one branch of rug’s company established in Hamedan that supervised rug producing with high level of quality.

According to Edwards’s quotation, in 1948, 120 looms were active in city center, he complains of lots of being kids weavers and describe work condition in local workshops. In years of fifty, Hamedan rugs, mostly were named Mosul; a commerce name that is attributed to these productions yet. Mosul market in Iraq, actually, was an important center of collecting these handmade that was sent to Turkey and then Europe.

Today in Hamedan, like many other cities in Iran through the renewing production method and commerce network, the rugs are weaving that meanwhile keeping their designs property, have low quality and sometimes even have medium quality and are woven for huge trades. Shortages in today’s production cause traditional and old rugs desirability being attractive. In Hamedan rugs, the property of old Kurdish designs patterns that were repeating of geometric designs based on plants next to regular designs of old Turkish rugs, has been used. Using a color spectrum full of herbal colors that some of them were placed in especial bathroom dyeing to take different colors, causes more charm of designs and mostly cause distinction of different village’s rugs.

Totally, Hamedan rugs, have small sizes and in most times are 2 Zar (200*110 centimeter) or 1.5 Zar (150*100 centimeter). The long rugs in shape of side rugs are also woven in this city. The rugs have strong structure that warps and wefts are in kinds of cotton yarn and long piles are composed and are woven by wool so they have bright appearance; rarely wool wefts can be found among older rugs. According to customary and common method among Sane Kurdish rug and Hamedan local rug, weft crosses only once after each wate. Among very fame and old workshops of Hamedan, the workshop of Sheikh Taghi Vakil can be pointed that were in an old building and its rugs are so scarce nowadays. Also the master Yusef Zanjani was so famous and had a workshop in dyers district and were working with Armenian merchants. From other famous people in rug weaving, “Riyahi” can be mentioned that was the most important producer in Pahlavi era and also “Nobari” that his rugs were mostly woven to present in America’s markets. Designers like Mirza Shahab and Ali Hosein Jani, were also fame. Also in weaving in Hamedan state, merchants and especially Armenian merchants, had an important role; and it was because of endeavors of people like Avanozian, Avakian, Qoltoqhian and Shirvanian that Hamedan rugs found a way to Europe. In big bazaar of city, also the rugs belong to nomads were presented that

among them, Shahsavans can be mentioned and especially Tarkashand or RamTaqlu tribe and also Baghdad Kurdish can be named.